SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTATION (PDF Download) Janis A. Bulgren, James D. Ellis

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Quick Overview

This manual contains a set of instructional methods that science teachers can use to help students engage in higher order reasoning associated with argumentation.


The ability to engage in such higher order reasoning is a critical skill for all students according to many national education standards. This manual provides teachers and students with evidence-based procedures that will enable them to think critically about a claim, decide on the strength of the claim, and explain the reasoning that supports the claim. You must be logged in to order downloadable products. Note: We cannot accept returns on downloadable products. Learn More

Please note that professional development, coaching, and infrastructure support are essential components to effective implementation of SIM instructional tools and interventions. It is highly recommended that you work with a SIM professional developer. Please email to learn more.

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